Doctor of Public Health Prospectus From

DrPH Prospectus Form Students | Complete your doctoral prospectus within this form. Write your responses in the white spaces using a scholarly tone and include in-text citations and APA reference entries, where appropriate. You can click on underlined terms and headings for descriptions, resource links, and examples located in the Appendix. For additional prospectus information and resources, refer to the Doctoral Research Coach. Complete the Research Design Alignment Table within this form using the information from earlier sections and self-assess your research design alignment. Submit this completed form into MyDR for formal evaluation and feedback when your committee chair indicates that you are ready to do so. Student’s Name | WEN CHIEH CHIAWEN CHIEH CHIA Student ID | A01165559A01165559 Program and Specialization* | DR. PUBLIC HEALTHDR. PUBLIC HEALTH Submission Date | 2/26/20242/26/2024 *Remember that your study focus must be within the realm of your program and specialization area. Evaluators Only | Complete this section and provide feedback on responses and rubric scores in the form where noted. Committee Chairperson Name: TOLULOPE OSOBA TOLULOPE OSOBA NeededRevisions Not Needed Second Committee Member Name: EDWARD IROBI EDWARD IROBI Revisions Not NeededRevisions Not Needed PhD Program Director or Designee: Dr. Shanna BarnettDr. Shanna Barnett BelowRevisions Needed/See Notes Below Overall Assessment: Revisions Not Overall Assessment: Overall Assessment: Revisions Needed/See Notes Rubric Standard | Complete > Does the prospectus contain all the required elements? Refer to the annotated outline to see the required parts of the Doctoral study Prospectus document. Note. Please complete following the directions provided, using the stem sentences, and referring to the examples in the appendix. Title Provide a concise (aim for 15 words or fewer) working title for this study. Include the main topic, variables/concepts under investigation, and the relationship between them. A title should be fully explanatory when standing alone and include the most critical key words. Respiratory Health and Environmental Risks in Californian Children: Impact of Socioeconomic Status Supporting Literature The first step in developing your prospectus is to search the literature related to the general area you want to investigate (see social problem below). In your review of recent, empirical literature, what keywords did you search and in what databases? The keywords and databases searched included respiratory illnesses, air pollution, toxic compounds in air, socioeconomic factors contributing to air pollution-based diseases, harmful effects of air pollution, asthma, COPD, viral respiratory infections. Databases searched: Google Scholar, Walden University Library, ProQuest Provide at least 10 brief summaries of recent, scholarly (peer-reviewed) articles that support/justify a current and relevant problem in your discipline or professional field. Source(s) supporting your framework (see Framework below) should be included. Include the complete, APA reference entry, followed by (a) an in-text citation; (b) what was studied; (c) what was found; and (d) why this research is important in relation to your study. This evidence provides the justification for your research problem. 1.Brumberg, H. L., Karr, C. J., Bole, A., Ahdoot, S., Balk, S. J., Bernstein, A. S., … & Trasande, L. (2021). Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children. Pediatrics, 147(6). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2021-051484 a)Brumberg et al. (2021) b)examined air pollution sources like agricultural production, forest, fires, vehicular traffic and coal-fired power plants, including their potential to cause respiratory illnesses among infants and children. C)The research finds that air pollution exacerbates respiratory diseases causing reduced lung function and high incidences of asthma. D)This study is significant for the research since it outlines essential information that can help in determining the relationship between air pollution and respiratory illnesses among children. 2. Chatkin, J., Correa, L., & Santos, U. (2021). External environmental pollution as a risk factor for asthma. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 1-18. DOI: 10.1007/s12016-020-08830-5 Chatkin et al. (2021) researched the risk factors of asthma. The study discovered that pollutant agents like particulate matter and gaseous components has a considerable implication on asthma incidences among children. children in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods are most likely to develop asthma from environmental pollution. This scholarly article is crucial for the research as it demonstrates the relationship between respiratory illness and environmental pollution, specifically on individuals in economically disadvantaged areas. 3. Domingo, J. L., & Rovira, J. (2020). Effects of air pollutants on the transmission and severity of respiratory viral infections. Environmental Research, 187, 109650. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109650 Domingo & Rovira (2020) probed the impact of air pollutants on respiratory viral infections. The study indicated that pollutant agents like particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) improve transmission of viruses causing respiratory infections in children as well as adults. Evidence from this article is essential for the research since it indicates the association between air pollutants and respiratory viral infections. 4. Dominski, F. H., Branco, J. H. L., Buonanno, G., Stabile, L., da Silva, M. G., & Andrade, A. (2021). Effects of air pollution on health: A mapping review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Environmental Research, 201, 111487. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111487 Dominski et al. (2021) analyze the trends in air pollution and negative consequences it causes on human health. The study reveals that nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter are the primary components that promote respiratory illnesses. This journal is vital for the research since it highlights a close relationship between air pollution and adverse respiratory health outcomes. 5. Hendryx, M., Luo, J., Chojenta, C., & Byles, J. E. (2019). Air pollution exposures from multiple point sources and risk of incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Environmental Research, 179, 108783. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108783 Hendryx et al. (2019) researched the risk of acquiring chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma from air pollutants. The study showed that exposure to air pollutants has increased asthma and COPD prevalence among children. This article is crucial for the research since it indicates the prevalence of specific respiratory illnesses due to exposure to environmental pollutants. 6. Kim, D., Chen, Z., Zhou, L. F., & Huang, S. X. (2018). Air pollutants and early origins of respiratory diseases. Chronic diseases and translational medicine, 4(2), 75–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2018.03.003 Kim et al. (2018) studies the origins of respiratory diseases from air pollutants. The study found that particulate forms and chemical contaminants like nitrogen dioxide increases the risk of laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis, which can eventually lead to influenza viral infections and death among children below 5 years. This study is important for the research since it examines the pathology of respiratory illnesses and outlines its relationship to air pollutants. 7. Kumar, R. (2020). Air pollution and respiratory health. Health, 3, 032–037. DOI:10.29328/journal.japch.1001015 Kumar (2020) investigates outdoor and indoor air pollution and examines their effects on children’s respiratory health. This article discovers that mineral and chemical compositions of air pollution increase respiratory morbidity among children, raising the risk of acquiring rhinitis, upper respiratory ailments, and asthma. This study is vital for the research as it outlines the rate of respiratory infections from air pollution among children in economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighborhoods. 8. Nho, R. (2020). Pathological effects of nano-sized particles on the respiratory system. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 29, 102242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102242 Nho (2020) researched the nano-particles in air pollutants that worsen respiratory health using concepts of pathology. The study finds that nano-particles affect and disrupt normal functioning of vital respiratory organs, contributing to asthma and pulmonary diseases. The significance of this study to the research is based on how it indicates the association between air pollutant nano-sized particles and adverse respiratory outcomes. 9. Rahman, M. M., McConnell, R., Schlaerth, H., Ko, J., Silva, S., Lurmann, F. W., … & Garcia, E. (2022). The effects of coexposure to extremes of heat and particulate air pollution on mortality in California: implications for climate change. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 206(9), 1117-1127. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202204-0657OC Rahman et al. (2022) probes the effect of particulate air pollution and respiratory health outcomes in California’s children population. The study indicates that air pollutions increase the risk of respiratory illnesses in children, thus, promoting high mortality rates. The importance of this study to the research is based on the statistical data in offers to show a strong relationship between air pollution and respiratory mortality among children. 10. Ryter, S. W., Ma, K. C., & Choi, A. M. (2018). Carbon monoxide in lung cell physiology and disease. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 314(2), C211-C227. DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00022.2017 Ryter et al. (2018) investigates the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide on respiratory illnesses. The study shows that gaseous carbon monoxide causes bleomycin-induced lung injury and pulmonary hypertension, increasing the risk of respiratory illnesses and sepsis, leading to death among children. this study is important to the research since it highlights the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory illnesses from a biological standpoint. Rubric Standard | Justified > Is evidence presented that this problem is significant to the discipline and/or professional field? The prospectus should provide relevant statistics and evidence, documentable discrepancies, and other scholarly facts that point to the significance and urgency of the problem. Problem What was the social problem that prompted you to search the literature to find out more? Write in complete sentences using a scholarly tone. The situation or issue that prompted me to search the literature is the global health crisis precipitated by industrial air pollution, which afflicts millions with various respiratory conditions. This concern is underpinned by evidence that industries emit hazardous substances, significantly degrading air quality and leading to respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (Author, Year) . Key pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and heavy metals like lead and mercury, which have been directly linked to increased respiratory infections (Kim et al., 2018; Hendryx et al., 2019; Kumar, 2020). Notably, nations like India and Pakistan are highlighted for their substantial industrial emissions, exacerbating the prevalence of pollution-related respiratory ailments (Kim et al., 2018). The combustion of fossil fuels, a prevalent practice in industrial activities, releases carbon monoxide among other noxious gases, posing significant health risks (Nho, 2020; Ryter et al., 2018). In the United States, regions such as California, Arizona, the District of Columbia, Utah, and Illinois are identified as pollution hotspots due to their dense populations and industrial activities, correlating with higher rates of respiratory illnesses (Kumar, 2020; Rahman et al., 2022). While discerning the exact cause of these illnesses—whether industrial pollution or lifestyle factors such as smoking—remains challenging, the investigation focuses on the relationship between respiratory disease incidences (dependent variable) and factors like age, geographic location, and socioeconomic status (independent variables). Now that you have read and summarized some of the recent literature to understand your problem, and given what other researchers are exploring, what meaningful gap have you identified that your study will address? (What have others not yet explored about this problem that you will contribute with your study?) Although researchers have investigated this issue, the topic has not been explored in this way: Despite extensive research on the impact of air pollution on respiratory illnesses, there remains a lack of focused investigation into how socioeconomic factors influence the prevalence and management of respiratory conditions stemming from air pollution. This study will contribute to the field by examining the differential experiences of families living in urban versus rural settings, with a particular focus on understanding the disparities in respiratory health outcomes among children in these environments. Furthermore, the research will delve into health disparities in regions like California, where specific socio-economic factors may exacerbate the risk of respiratory diseases among children. By exploring these dimensions, the study seeks to uncover actionable insights that could inform public health strategies aimed at improving healthcare access and reducing the incidence of respiratory illnesses among children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Based on all of the above information (social problem, literature review, gap), in one sentence, what is your research problem? In one sentence, the specific research problem is it is not known how air pollutants in urban and rural areas of California affect respiratory health outcomes, particularly among children across all socioeconomic backgrounds, necessitating an exploration of health disparities and potential gaps to enhance respiratory health management. Rubric Standard | Meaningful > Has a meaningful problem and gap in the research literature been identified? In other words, is addressing this problem the logical next step, given the previous exploratory and confirmatory research (or lack thereof) on this topic? It is not acceptable to simply replicate previous research for a doctoral degree. Rubric Standard | Original > Does this project have potential to make an original contribution? The problem must be an authentic “puzzle” that needs solving, not merely a topic that the researcher finds interesting. Addressing the problem should result in an original contribution to the field or discipline. Purpose To address your stated research problem, what is the purpose of your study? Will you describe, compare, explore, examine, etc.? Complete the purpose sentence below and be sure to clarify your variables/concepts of interest. The purpose of this QuantitativeQuantitative study is to explore the effects of addressing health disparities and regulating air pollution on improving respiratory health outcomes, thereby mitigating the prevalence of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma among children. This research aims to systematically examine the relationship between environmental factors and pediatric respiratory health, focusing on the variables of health disparities and air pollution regulation, and their collective impact on reducing respiratory illnesses in the pediatric population. Framework (Conceptual or Theoretical) What theory(ies) and/or concept(s) support (frame) your study and who are the original authors? Provide an in-text citation with your response, and the complete APA reference. The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include the environmental health disparities framework (EHDF How do these theories and/or concepts relate to your research problem, purpose, and the nature of your study? The logical connections between the framework presented and the nature of my study include The environmental health disparities framework (EHDF) relates to the research problem as it offers in-depth and comprehensive information that guides investigations on risk factors of respiratory diseases among children. The main component of the EHDF is the “risk,” which assesses environmental hazards and the adverse effects they cause on children in terms of respiratory health. Besides, EHDF influences the study’s purpose by offering a conceptual approach for examining the relationship between environmental risk factors like air pollution and respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD among children. Concerning the nature of the study, EHDF helps to analyze the research topic from four viewpoints: exposure, vulnerability, risk, and interventions. From these aspects, EHDF systematically illustrates how environmental risk factors adversely affect children’s respiratory health and potential interventions that can be implemented to suppress this trajectory. the environmental health disparities framework (EHDF) is suitable for this assessment. EHDF examines the impact of environmental injustices on people’s well-being, causing health disparities within society. Further, it outlines how exposures to environmental hazards risk people’s lives due to surging disease cases. In addition, EHDF highlights the need for policy interventions to curb environmental injustices that increase social health disparities. The original authors of EHDF are Dr. Robert Bullard and Dr. Sacoby Wilson, who have expertise in the realm of environmental justice and health disparities. The reference is missing. Rubric Standard | Grounded > Is the problem framed to enable the researcher to either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic? For most fields, grounding involves articulating the problem within the context of a theoretical base or conceptual framework. Although many approaches can ground a study in the scientific literature, the essential requirement is that the problem is framed such that the new findings will have implications for the previous findings. Research Question(s) and Hypotheses (if applicable) List the question(s) that you plan to use to address the research problem. Your question(s) must align with your study purpose and include the variables and/or concepts and how they will be examined. Research Question 1 (RQ1): What is the correlation between the degree of exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants and the respiratory health among children from socioeconomically advantaged areas compared to those from economically disadvantaged regions? • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no correlation between the degree of exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants to respiratory health issues among children in both socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The degree of exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants strongly correlates to respiratory health issues among children in both socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. Research Question 2 (RQ2): What is the association between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children? • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant association between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children. Poor air quality will not contribute to cases of respiratory illnesses among children. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant association between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children. Poor air quality will contribute to high cases of respiratory illnesses, increasing prevalence among children. Research Question 3 (RQ3): What is the correlation between air pollution levels in economically advantaged regions, such as California, compared to impoverished areas, and how do these levels influence respiratory illness in children across different age brackets? • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant difference in the impact of air pollution levels on respiratory illness in children between economically disadvantaged regions and impoverished areas across different age brackets. There will be no difference between the levels of air pollution in California compared to impoverished areas. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant difference in the impact of air pollution levels on respiratory illness in children between economically advantaged regions and impoverished areas across different age brackets. Economically advantaged areas like California have astronomical levels of air pollution due to high traffic, producing more exhausts than impoverished areas, thus rising respiratory illnesses like asthma among children. Nature of the Study What systematic approach/method and research design do you plan to use to address your research question(s)? To address the research questions in this QuantitativeQuantitative study, the specific research design will include To investigate the relationship between air pollution exposure and respiratory health outcomes among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds, this study will employ a quantitative research design. Specifically, the research will utilize a cross-sectional study design to examine the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children and correlate these health outcomes with levels of particulate matter and other contaminants in their living environments. This approach allows for the analysis of data at a single point in time to identify patterns and associations between air quality and respiratory health across socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. The chosen cross-sectional design is particularly suitable for the research questions posed, as it supports the identification of patterns and disparities in respiratory health related to air pollution exposure among children from various socioeconomic backgrounds. Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based: Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (5th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.. For your planned research design, what type of data will you need and what data collection tools and sources will provide it? For my planned research design, I will need quantitative data: 1. Environmental Data: Levels of particulate matter and other air pollutants in different regions, categorized by socioeconomic status. This data is crucial for establishing exposure levels in advantaged versus disadvantaged areas. 2. Health Data: Prevalence and types of respiratory illnesses among children in the study areas. This includes specific diagnoses, severity of conditions, and any hospital admissions related to respiratory issues. Data Collection Tools and Sources: 1. Environmental Monitoring Databases: Publicly available databases from environmental protection agencies or similar organizations will be utilized to gather historical data on air pollution levels e.g. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) database. 2. Health Records: Data on respiratory health outcomes may be sourced from health records provided by local hospitals, clinics, and health departments. This will be de-identified patient records that detail respiratory illness diagnoses among children within the study’s geographic scope. 3. Secondary Data Sources: For socioeconomic status classification, secondary data from census bureaus or economic research institutes will be used to categorize regions as economically advantaged or disadvantaged based on standard indicators such as median household income, unemployment rates, and education levels. Data Collection Procedure: • Environmental Data: Access and download relevant datasets from environmental monitoring agencies’ websites, focusing on the specific time frame and regions of interest. • Health Data: Obtain permission to access and use de-identified health records from local health departments, hospitals, and clinics. For primary data collection via surveys, design the survey instrument based on the study’s variables, secure ethical approval, and distribute the surveys to the target population through schools, pediatric clinics, or community centers. Socioeconomic Data: Download or request access to socioeconomic datasets from relevant governmental or research institutions, ensuring the data match the geographical and temporal scope of the study. What data points from these sources do you plan to use to answer your research question(s)? Environmental Data Points: Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Levels: Concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter in the air, measured in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). Other Air Pollutants: Levels of other key air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3), measured in parts per billion (ppb) or micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). Socioeconomic Status of Regions: Classification of areas as socioeconomically advantaged or disadvantaged based on indicators such as median household income, unemployment rates, educational attainment, and housing quality. Health Data Points: Prevalence of Respiratory Illnesses: Rates of specific respiratory conditions among children, such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections, within the study regions. Severity of Conditions: Information on the severity of respiratory illnesses, including hospital admission rates, duration of illness, and any chronic complications. Demographic Information: Age, race/ethnicity, and geographic location of the children affected by respiratory conditions to allow for subgroup analyses. Data Collection Sources: Environmental Data: Obtained from environmental monitoring stations managed by local or national environmental protection agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States. Health Data: from health records maintained by hospitals, clinics, and public health departments, as well as national health surveys and databases that track disease prevalence and health outcomes. Method of Access: For environmental data, access will be through publicly available databases or direct contact with environmental agencies for specific datasets. Health data will be accessed through partnerships with healthcare providers, agreements with health departments, or use of publicly available health data sets, ensuring compliance with all ethical guidelines and privacy regulations. • Independent Variables: Degree of exposure to particulate matter and other air contaminants, socioeconomic status of the region (advantaged vs. disadvantaged). • Dependent Variable: Level of respiratory health among children, measured through the prevalence of respiratory illnesses. Data will be collected from existing health records and environmental monitoring databases to ensure comprehensive coverage of the variables of interest. This secondary data analysis will enable the examination of real-world exposure and health outcomes without the need for direct data collection from participants, thereby facilitating a broader geographic and demographic scope. What limitations, challenges, and/or barriers might you need to address while conducting this study (e.g., requirements for storing data, separation of roles or other ethical considerations, instrumentation fees, etc.)? Potential limitations of this study include reliance on secondary data, which may not perfectly align with the research questions or include all desired variables. Additionally, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits the ability to infer causality between air pollution exposure and respiratory health outcomes. Challenges may also arise in accurately classifying socioeconomic status and ensuring the comparability of data across different regions. Other considerations during the study include: 1. Ethical considerations. The study will need to adhere to ethical guidelines like confidentiality and anonymity and informed consent. 2. Data access. Obtain data from participants at times challenging due to confidentiality concerns and lack of proper awareness. 3. Data storage. Data should be stored securely to ensure confidentiality. 4. Instrumentation fees. The study can incur huge expenses on instruments and tools used to gather data. Rubric Standard | Feasible > Can a systematic method of inquiry be used to address the problem; and does the approach have the potential to address the problem while considering potential risks and burdens placed on research participants? The tentative methodology demonstrates that the researcher has considered the options for inquiry and has selected an approach that has potential to address the problem. Significance How will your study address the meaningful, discipline-specific issue that you identified and therefore contribute to your field, discipline, professional practice, etc. contributing to positive social change? This study is significant in that it addresses the public health issue of air pollution’s impact on children’s respiratory health, particularly across socioeconomic divides. By examining the correlation between exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants with respiratory health outcomes among children, the research fills a critical gap in environmental health studies. It aligns with understanding and mitigating environmental risk factors affecting vulnerable populations. The findings will significantly contribute to the field of environmental health by providing new insights into how socioeconomic status mediates the effects of air pollution on children’s health. This knowledge can guide public health professionals, environmental scientists, and California’s policymakers in developing targeted interventions and policies to reduce exposure risks among children in disadvantaged areas. Educating healthcare providers, educators, parents, and the community about the study’s findings can enhance awareness of the importance of environmental health. This increased awareness can lead to stronger advocacy for clean air initiatives and more informed decisions by individuals and communities to protect children’s health. By highlighting the disparities in health outcomes related to air pollution, the study advocates for environmental justice and health equity, contributing to positive social change. It supports the development of community-based and policy-level strategies to improve air quality and reduce children’s health risks from pollution. The research outcomes can inform public health campaigns, environmental policies, and community planning, aiming to create healthier living environments for all children, regardless of their socioeconomic background. Rubric Standard | Impact > Does this project have potential to affect positive social change? As described in the Significance section, the anticipated findings have potential to support the mission of Walden University to promote positive social change. Rubric Standard | Objective > Is the topic approached in an objective manner? The framing of the problem should not reveal bias or present a foregone conclusion. Even if the researcher has a strong opinion on the expected findings, the researcher must maximize scholarly objectivity by framing the problem in the context of a systematic inquiry that permits multiple possible conclusions. Partner Site Masking Self-Check Walden capstones typically mask the identity of the partner organization. The methodological and ethical reasons for this practice as well as criteria for exceptions are outlined here (link to posted guidance). ☐ Check here to confirm that you will mask the identity of the organization in the final capstone that you publish in ProQuest. ☐ If you perceive that your partner organization’s identity would be impossible to mask or if there is a strong rationale for naming the organization in your capstone, please check this box so that your Program Director can review your request for an exception. If granted, that exception must be confirmed by the IRB during the ethics review process. The IRB will also ensure that your consent form(s) and/or site agreement(s) permit naming the organization. ☐ Not Applicable Research Design Alignment Table | Using an alignment table can assist with ensuring the alignment of your research design. Research Design Alignment Table Video Tutorial (YouTube) | Doctoral Research Design Alignment Appointments or Office Hours Note. At the prospectus stage, not all items in the table below can be identified (e.g., data points, data analysis). Please complete the items that you have identified in this form. During proposal development, you will revisit this plan to adjust, as needed, and finalize your research design. Hover over bold font for Instructions and click links for resources. Research Problem, Purpose, and Framework Research Question(s), Method, & Design Problem: the specific research problem is that environmental risks like air pollution cause respiratory illnesses like asthma and COPD on children. Purpose: the purpose of this quantitative study is to analyze environmental risks that increase the prevalence of respiratory illness among children and how these problems can be mitigated. Framework: the theoretical framework for this study includes exposure-response model and vulnerability and susceptibility model. RQ1: What correlation exists between a degree of particulate matter, including other contaminants and the level of respiratory health among children from socioeconomically advantaged areas compared those in economically disadvantaged regions? • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no correlation between the degree of exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants to respiratory health issues among children in both socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The degree of exposure to particulate matter and other contaminants strongly correlates to respiratory health issues among children in both socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Design: Quasi-experimental RQ2: What is the association between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children. • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant association Types of Data to be Collected and Data Collection Instruments Data Sources Data Analysis Air quality values. Statistics of affected individuals, and respiratory diseases. Overall, they offer values on air quality of specific areas making it easy to examine economically disadvantaged and advantaged areas. I will utilize surveys to examine households affected with respiratory illnesses. Systematic literature review. The data sources will be the World Health Organization, participant surveys, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Variables: Age, income, geographic location, housing, and access to clinical services. Scales of measurement: interval/ratio, nominal. Analysis: analysis of variance (ANOVA). SPSS for data analysis. The type of data to be collected include the population of affected individuals, air quality values, and respiratory illnesses. I will gather data using surveys and systematic literature review. The data sources will be the World Health Organization, participant surveys, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Variables: Age, income, geographic location, housing, and access to clinical services. Scales of measurement: interval/ratio, nominal. between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children. Poor air quality will not contribute to cases of respiratory illnesses among children. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant association between poor air quality and the prevalence of respiratory illnesses among children. Poor air quality will contribute to high cases of respiratory illnesses, increasing prevalence among children. Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis: analysis of variance (ANOVA). SPSS for data analysis. The data sources will be the World Health Organization, participant surveys, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Variables: Age, income, geographic location, housing, and access to clinical services. Scales of measurement: interval/ratio, nominal. Analysis: analysis of variance (ANOVA). SPSS for data analysis. Design: Quasi-experimental RQ3: Determine the relationship between the impact of air pollution levels in economically advantaged regions like California and impoverished areas and identify differences by exploring how they influence respiratory illness in children of different age brackets. • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant difference in the impact of air pollution levels on respiratory illness in children between economically disadvantaged regions and impoverished areas across different age brackets. There will be no difference between the levels of air pollution in California compared to impoverished areas. • Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant difference in the impact of air pollution levels on respiratory illness in children between economically advantaged regions and impoverished areas across different age brackets. Economically advantaged areas like Air quality values, particulate matter percentages, population of affected individuals, and respiratory diseases. Surveys and systematic literature review. California have astronomical levels of air pollution due to high traffic, producing more exhausts than impoverished areas, thus rising respiratory illnesses like asthma among children. Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Design: Quasi-experimental Note. The information in the first column must align with all rows, and each individual RQ row must show alignment across the columns for that row. Once your Research Design Alignment Table is completed, reflect on your design alignment. Ask yourself: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Is there a logical progression from the research problem to the purpose of the study? Does the identified framework ground the investigation into the stated problem? Do the problem, purpose, and framework in the left-hand column align with the RQ(s) (all rows)? Does each RQ address the problem and align with the purpose of the study? Does the information across each individual row match/align with the RQ listed for that row? • By row, will the variables listed address the RQ? • By row, will the analysis address the RQ? • By row, can the analysis be completed with the data points that will be collected? Rubric Standard | Aligned > Do the various aspects of the prospectus align overall? The nature of the study should align with the problem, research questions, and tentative approaches to inquiry. Appendix The Doctoral Prospectus The Doctoral Prospectus is a brief document that provides preliminary information about your doctoral study research and is used in two ways: • It serves as the tentative plan for developing the proposal and is evaluated to ensure doctoral-level work (e.g., feasibility, alignment, etc.). • It provides information used to assign the committee University Research Reviewer. Prospectus milestone approval from the committee chair, second committee member, and a program-level designee is required for you to move forward and work on your proposal. The plan is subject to change, and parts of your research design may need to be adjusted after you complete your exhaustive review of the literature during proposal development. The following sections includes sample prospectus form responses for both a quantitative and a qualitative study. Green underlined text are the examples. The form text should be black, single spaced, and not underlined. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Title Titles should be concise (aim for 15 words or fewer), be a statement, not a question, and no colons please. The title should indicate the main topic and the variables/concepts under study and the relationship between them. A title should be fully explanatory when standing alone and include the most critical key words (a searchable statement of what the manuscript contains). Avoid words that serve no purpose (such as methods, results, a study of…, or investigation of…), use full terms (avoid abbreviations), and capitalize any word of four or more letters, and all parts of a verb. For more information, see the F&S Checklist. Quantitative (QN) Example Perspectives of Self-management Practices of Adult Diabetics in Grenada During the COVID-19 Pandemic Qualitative (QL) Example How Adults Diagnosed with Diabetes in Grenada Self-Managed their Disease During the COVID-19 Pandemic ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Supporting Literature Probably the most important step in the research process is searching recent, peer-reviewed literature and reading articles related to the general area you want to investigate. The area is based on an identified social problem. As you read and learn, you will narrow your focus. This is how you will identify a disciplinespecific research problem. [Note: Scholarly, empirical articles and how to find them.] First, you’ll need to determine your search terms or keywords and the databases you should search. As you conduct your search of the literature, stay organized by keeping a search log. Search Log Example Database Search Terms Results Notes Multidatabase search online doctoral program completion; limited to peer reviewed, 2016-present 1175 Search too broad; Narrow by using multiple terms Multidatabase search online doctoral program completion AND ABD; limited to peer reviewed, 2016present 13 Much better; Several relevant articles found Education Source Etc. Example for this Form The keywords and databases searched included diabetes self-management, chronic disease management during disasters, and diabetes management during disasters, dietary behaviors and COVID-19, physical activity and COVID-19, and COVID-19 and diabetes, COVID-19 and Grenada in the PubMed database as well as a multi-database search. As you read and evaluate literature, you also need to organize your research. A literature review matrix is one way to help you visualize what has and hasn’t been done in your field. It will help you understand the scholarly works related to your area of interest. The importance of organizing and recording your review of literature cannot be overstated. You will refer to your notes as you write, so start on the right track from the beginning! [Suggestion: If you keep your search log in an Excel workbook, use the second tab in the same workbook for your literature review matrix.] For this form, include the complete, APA reference entry and (a) an in-text citation; (b) what they studied; (c) what they found; and (d) why this is important in relation to your study. This evidence provides the justification for your research problem. These sources provide justification that this problem is meaningful to the discipline or professional field. These references should ideally be from the past 5 years. Reference entries related to the framework should be included here, too. [Note: During proposal development, you will conduct an exhaustive review and synthesize your sources, rather than summarize.] Examples included for articles cited (at least 10 brief summaries are required, as well as APA references for any in-text citations) Arrieta, M. I., Foreman, R. D., Crook, E. D., & Icenogle, M. L. (2008). Insuring continuity of care for chronic disease patients after a disaster: Key preparedness elements. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 336(2), 128-133. https://doi.org/10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318180f209 Arrieta et al., (2008); (b) studied challenges after Hurricane Katrina for individuals with chronic diseases; (c) they found Predisaster issues were patient education and preparedness, evacuation, special needs shelters, and health care provider preparedness. Postdisaster issues were communication, volunteer coordination, and donation management; and (d) this is important for my study because diabetes is a chronic disease and knowing what the challenges were related to Hurricane Katrina may inform my research study. Banerjee, M., Chakraborty, S., & Palc, R. (2020). Diabetes self-management amid COVID-19 pandemic. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 14(4), 351–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.013 (a) Banerjee et al., (2020); (b) conducted a literature review to look at physician-centered care versus diabetes self-management and education during COVID-19; (c) they found multiple barriers to diabetes self-management in India and a need to address these, improve patient education during the pandemic to improve diabetes self-management; and (d) this is important to my study because it is clear there are challenges with diabetes selfmanagement in other countries, therefore, there is a need to understand what is going on in the United States. Department of Health and Human Resources. (2020). Disasters and chronic disease. https://dhhr.wv.gov/hpcd/Pages/Disasters-and-Chronic-Disease.aspx Madden, T.J., Ellen, P.S., Ajzen, I. (1992). A comparison of the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (18) 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167292181001 (a) Madden et al., (1992); (b) compared the theory of reasoned action to the theory of planned behavior; (c) they found that the theory of planned behavior stemmed from the theory of reasoned action and includes the perceived control of behavior; and (d) why this is important for my study because it is the perceived control portion of the theory that I am most interested in as adults with diabetes may lose their perceived behavioral control with the lockdown during COVID-19. Ministry of Health Grenada. (2020). Emergency powers (COVID-19) (No. 4) regulations, 2020. https://covid19.gov.gd/emergency-powers-covid-19-no-4regulations-2020/ Owens, J. K., & Martsolf, D. S. (2014). Chronic illness and disasters: Development of a theoretical framework. Qualitative Report, 19(22), 1–23. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol19/iss22/1/ (a) Owens and Martsolf, (2014); (b) studied individuals with chronic illness during disasters; (c) they developed the backburnering theory based on five constructs, media impact, 2) evacuation, 3) preparation, 4) focus of attention, and 5 ) recovery.; and (d) this is important to my study because it provides a different lens through which to view how individuals address their chronic illness during a disaster, which informs my study. Ranscombe, P. (2020). How diabetes management is adapting amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet, 8(7), 571. https://doi.org/10.1016/S22138587(20)30181-9 (a) Ranscombe, (2020); (b) studied how physicians in the U.K. were managing their diabetic patients during the COVID-19 lockdown.; (c) found some were using technology, patient education continued but in different formats; and (d) this is important to understand the ways in which adults diagnosed with diabetes can be supported to self-manage during a pandemic. Wongrith, P. (2019). Predicting diabetic self-care management based on the theory of planned behavior among elderly with type 2 diabetes in Thailand. Diabetes Mellitus, 22(4), 367-376. https://doi.org/10.14341/DM10290 (a) Wongrith, (2019); (b) studied treatment outcome and factors predicting diabetes self-care behaviors among elderly in Thailand; (c) found most people controlled their glycemic index through self-care behaviors. Perceived behavioral control was the most important factor predicting self-care management behavior; and (d) this study uses the theory of planned behavior, which is the theory I plan to use in Rubric Standard | Justified > Is evidence presented that this problem is significant to the discipline and/or professional field? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Problem Social Problem The situation or issue being experienced by a population or within your discipline that prompted you to search the literature to find out more is sometimes called a social problem. It is the issue that students see “on the ground” so to speak. The social problem is often what prompts students to think about a topic of interest. Usually such a topic is one that students identify with, sometimes having personally experienced some aspect of the problem as it exists in the world. Example The issue that prompted me to search the literature is that disasters, like pandemics, can adversely affect people’s ability to manage their condition. There is strong evidence that during a disaster, persons with diabetes are particularly vulnerable and face several challenges to their disease management, such as medication and diet needs, physical activity, and other aspects of self-management (Arrieta et al., 2008; Department of Health and Human Resources, 2020; Owens & Martsolf, 2014). Consequently, diabetic patients are at risk for serious health complications, which presents additional challenges to both the patients and the country’s health system. From March 2020 to May 2020, the government of Grenada enforced a lockdown with several regulations, which included a curfew that restricted movement, closure of businesses, physical distancing protocols, restrictions on social and religious activities, and restrictions on transportation (Ministry of Health Grenada, 2020). Banerjee et al. (2020) and Ranscombe (2020) explained that the restrictions raise questions about how persons with diabetes can get advice, appropriately monitor their health, and continue to manage their condition. These restrictions can adversely affect how persons can manage the disease effectively. Gap The need to address an identified gap in the research literature must be clear and there must be current relevance to the discipline and area of practice. Keep in mind that a gap in the research is not, in and of itself, a reason to conduct research. Example Although researchers have investigated this issue, the topic has not been explored in this way: how the pandemic impacted the self-management behaviors of adults with diabetes in Grenada. Rubric Standard | Meaningful > Has a meaningful problem and gap in the research literature been identified? Research Problem A research problem is a focused topic of concern, a condition to be improved upon, or troubling question that is supported in scholarly literature or theory that you study to understand in more detail, and that can lead to recommendations for resolutions. It is the research problem that drives the rest of the doctoral study: the purpose, the research questions, and the methodology. QN Example In one sentence, the specific research problem is that it is not known whether individuals diagnosed with diabetes were able to manage their diabetes effectively during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. The dependent variable will be glycemic index and the independent variables will be age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. QL Example In one sentence, the specific research problem is that there is a lack of information on how restrictions that are in place during a lockdown, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, impact the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage their disease. Rubric Standard | Meaningful > Has a meaningful problem and gap in the research literature been identified? Rubric Standard | Original > Does this project have potential to make an original contribution? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Purpose To address your stated research problem, what is the purpose of your study? Will you describe, compare, explore, examine, etc.? Be sure to clarify your variables/concepts of interest. For example: • In quantitative studies, state what needs be studied by describing two or more factors (variables) and a conjectured relationship among them related to the identified gap or problem. • In qualitative studies, describe the need for increased understanding about the issue to be studied, based on the identified gap or problem. • In mixed-methods studies, with both quantitative and qualitative aspects, clarify how the two approaches will be used together to inform the study. QN Example The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine level of glycemic control for individuals diagnosed with diabetes who self-managed during the lockdown for COVID-19 in Grenada. QL Example The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the self-management practices during the COVID-19 pandemic through the perspective of adult diabetics in Grenada. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Framework The framework includes the theories and/or concepts relevant to your topic. Align the framework with the problem, purpose, research questions, and background of your study. This theoretical or conceptual framework is the basis for understanding, designing, and analyzing ways to investigate your research problem (data collection and analysis). Provide the original scholarly literature (citing original authors) on the theory and/or concepts, even if it is more than 5 years old. Please do not cite secondary sources. Example Framework The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Next, explain how these theories and/or concepts relate to your research problem, purpose, and the nature of your study. Your topic/approach should align with the identified framework so that you will either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic. QN Example Framework The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, focusing specifically on the theory that the more resources and opportunities someone possesses, the greater perceived control they have over their behavior (Madden et al., 1992). This theory stems from the theory of reasoned action, which posited that belief (intention and information) about performing a behavior led to a specific behavioral outcome (Madden et al., 1992). The theory of planned behavior expanded on the theory of reasoned action by including the concept of perceived behavior control (Madden et al., 1992). Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based: Madden, T.J., Ellen, P.S., Ajzen, I. (1992). A comparison of the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (18) 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167292181001 QL Example Framework The logical connections between the framework presented and my study approach include Ajzen’s theoretical work, which has been used extensively in public health research to understand self-management behaviors of adults with diabetes (Wongrith, 2019). This research study will focus on the use of the concept of perceived control as it relates to the lockdown during COVID-19 and the impact this had on adults diagnosed with diabetes and their ability to self-manage their disease. Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based: Wongrith, P. (2019). Predicting diabetic self-care management based on the theory of planned behavior among elderly with type 2 diabetes in Thailand. Diabetes Mellitus, 22(4), 367-376. https://doi.org/10.14341/DM10290 Rubric Standard | Grounded > Is the problem framed to enable the researcher to either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Research Question(s) and Hypotheses (if applicable) List the overarching question and/or a series of related questions that are informed by the study purpose, that will be used to address the research problem. A research question informs the research design by providing a foundation for: • generation of null and alternative hypotheses in quantitative studies, • questions necessary to build the design structure for qualitative studies, and • a process by which different methods will work together in mixed-methods studies. QN Example QN Example RQ1: What is the association between the glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. H01— There is no statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. H1— There is a statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. RQ2: What is the association between the glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and participation in educational programs during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by visits to primary care provider? H02— There is no statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and participation in educational programs during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by visits to primary care provider? H2— There is a statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and participation in educational programs during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by visits to primary care provider? RQ3: What is the association between the glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and by visits to primary care provider during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by participation in educational programs? H03— There is no statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and by visits to primary care provider during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by participation in educational programs? H3— There is a statistically significant association between the glycemic (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. QL Example 1. What were the self-management experiences of adults with diabetes in Grenada during the COVID-19 lockdown period? 2. What were the attitudes, norms, and perceived behavior control of adults with diabetes in Grenada towards diabetes self-management, during the COVID-19 lockdown period? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Nature of the Study Explain the systematic approach/method and research design you plan to use to address your research question(s). Examples of study design are as follows: • Quantitative—for experimental, quasiexperimental, or nonexperimental designs; treatment-control; repeated measures; causal-comparative; single-subject; predictive studies; or other quantitative approaches • Qualitative—for basic/generic qualitative design, ethnography, case study, grounded theory, narrative inquiry, phenomenological research, policy analysis, or other qualitative traditions • Mixed methods, primarily quantitative—for sequential, concurrent, or transformative studies, with the focus on quantitative methods • Mixed methods, primarily qualitative—for sequential, concurrent, or transformative studies, with the focus on qualitative methods • Other—for another design, to be specified with a justification provided for its use QN Example To address the research questions in this quantitative study, the specific research design will include a cross-sectional design (Frankfort-Nachmias et al., 2008) with glycemic index examined at two points in time. This quantitative analysis should help pinpoint the difference in the diabetic control during the COVID-19 lockdown. Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based: Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D., & DeWaard, J. (2008). Research designs: Cross-sectional and quasi-experimental designs. Research Methods in the Social Sciences, 116. QL Example To address the research questions in this qualitative study, the specific research design will include a case study qualitative approach (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015) with interviews of adults diagnosed with diabetes who live in Grenada. This qualitative study will adopt an inductive and comparative approach as outlined by Merriam and Tisdell (2015). The inductive approach is used to consolidate the data from the interviews, then look for links between and within the data (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). The comparative case study approach compares the data from the interviews; however, it will not be used in this study to develop theory as it would in grounded theory (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based: Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. Wiley & Sons. Then, for your planned research design, present the type of data you will need, and a list of possible data collection tools and sources that could be used to address the proposed research question(s), such as test scores from college students, employee surveys, observations of a phenomenon, interviews with practitioners, historical documents from state records, de-identified medical records, or information from a federal database. At this point, you should have an idea of the type of data needed to address your research question(s). Explain whether you will be collecting primary data (collected by the you, the researcher) or accessing secondary data (preexisting or public data collected by others). If you are collecting data, you should present the tentative plan for instrument(s) and potential participants. If using secondary data, identify the data source, how the data will be accessed. Possible secondary data sources, by program, are available on the Center for Research Quality website. [Note. This is your tentative plan, so keep in mind that things might need to be modified during the proposal stage—particularly after you have completed your exhaustive review of the literature.] QN Primary Data Collection Example For my planned research design, I will need to use a validated survey to obtain the data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational programs. QN Secondary Data Example For my planned research design, I will need to access the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 data, it contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. This data was collected monthly, so a comparison is possible. QL Example For my planned research design, I will need to recruit adults diagnosed with diabetes for individual interviews. An interview protocol will be developed to address the problem and purpose of the study. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Next, provide the data points from these sources you plan to use to answer your research question(s). Data points are the specific variables or type of information that you will use in your analysis. For example, they may include items on a survey or types of interview questions (not the actual survey or interview questions). If using secondary data, you must ensure the data include the variables or data points that you need to address your research question. QN Primary Data Example As noted above, a validated survey will need to be used to gather the specific data points. The data will be anonymous and collected through an internet-based survey. A power analysis will be done to determine the number of participants needed for the study. QN Secondary Data Example As noted above the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. This data was collected monthly, so a comparison is possible. QL Example The data will include responses from adults diagnosed with diabetes who live in Grenada to the interview questions regarding how they self-managed their diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Constructs included will be attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Finally, provide information on limitations, challenges, and/or barriers that may need to be addressed when conducting this study. These may include access to participants, access to data, separation of roles (researcher versus employee), instrumentation fees, etc. If you are thinking about collecting data on a sensitive topic or from a vulnerable population, an early consultation with the Institutional Review Board (IRB; IRB@waldenu.edu) during your prospectus process is recommended to gain ethics guidance that you can incorporate into your subsequent proposal drafts and research planning. [Note. Find more information on research ethics and potential “red flag” issues on the IRB Guides and FAQs.] QN Primary Data Example A potential barrier when conducting a survey is recruiting enough participants to reach the power sample needed. Through recruiting via social media, snowball sampling, and local diabetic support and education groups, it is feasible to reach the needed sample size. A challenge in creating a survey is the need to test the survey for validity and reliability. I will attend IRB Office Hours to ask questions about these issues. QN Secondary Data Example Some of the limitations of this study include the use of secondary data and participant self-report. Without involvement in the research design and instrument selection, the data collected were not used to answer my specific research questions. Another potential barrier is that the survey was self-report, which could result in biased results. QL Example A potential challenge in the study is the ability to recruit participants during the COVID-19 pandemic because potential participants may feel uncomfortable participating in a research study. Another potential challenge is conducting one-on-one interviews under the COVID-19 regulations as stipulated by the Grenadian government, when in-person contact is no possible. A possible limitation of this qualitative study is response bias, as data collected would be based on the participants’ self-reports. Self-assessed behaviors might be biased based for several reasons like social-desirability or misunderstanding of proper behavior measurement. Rubric Standard | Feasible > Can a systematic method of inquiry be used to address the problem; and does the approach have the potential to address the problem while considering potential risks and burdens placed on research participants? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Significance Here you explain how your study addresses the meaningful, discipline-specific issue that you identified and will therefore contribute to your field, discipline, professional practice, etc. contributing to positive social change. Detail how your findings might support professional practice or allow practical application (answer the So what? question). QN Secondary and Primary Example This study is significant in that findings from this study will provide vital insights to Grenada and the Caribbean region as to the challenges adults diagnosed with diabetes faced during the lockdown due to COVID-19. The findings will also contribute knowledge to Grenada’s public health organizations, practitioners, responders, and the general public regarding the preparedness and management of the virus. It will also inform policymakers and persons with diabetes with effective ways to manage the condition during a disaster. By filling a gap, public health professionals will be better equipped to address chronic disease disaster management by translating the information into action in the diabetic population. The research also has the potential to impact positive social change in Grenada. The results can provide key information used for decision making and planning for adults diagnosed with diabetes and will also justify needed attention and resources towards the consideration of diabetes self-care and access to care in disaster planning. This is critical in improving the overall health of the diabetic population, decreasing mortality, and reducing the burden the disease can have on the small economy of Grenada. QL Example This study is significant in that findings from this study will provide vital insights to Grenada and the Caribbean region as to the challenges adults diagnosed with diabetes faced during the lockdown due to COVID-19. The findings will also contribute knowledge to Grenada’s public health organizations, practitioners, responders, and the general public regarding the preparedness and management of the virus. By filling a gap, public health professionals will be better equipped to understand chronic disease disaster management by individuals. The research also has the potential to impact positive social change in Grenada. The results can provide key information used for the creation of larger comprehensive and cultural relevant questionnaires and data collection material. This is critical in improving the overall health of the diabetic population, decreasing mortality, and reducing the burden the disease can have on the small economy of Grenada. Rubric Standard | Impact > Does this project have potential to affect positive social change? Rubric Standard | Objective > Is the topic approached in an objective manner? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… My Doctoral Research (MyDR) If you have not done so already, you should familiarize yourself with the MyDR system. The MyDR system was designed to assist you and your committee in navigating your doctoral research journey, from the very beginning through the final approval. The various landing pages in MyDR will track your progress and will serve as a central location for resources to support that progress. There is a process flow tool in which you exchange and store faculty evaluations of and feedback on your work as you progress along that journey. You will be entered into the MyDR system when both your committee chair and second member nominees are approved by the academic program. At that point, you will be able to access MyDR from the homepage of your doctoral study completion course in Blackboard. The first document that you will submit for approval in MyDR will be your prospectus. QN Sample Research Design Alignment Table Research Problem, Purpose, and Framework Research Question(s), Method, & Design Types of Data to be Collected and Data Collection Instruments Problem: The specific research problem is that it is not known RQ1: What is the association between the glycemic index (the I will need to access the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database Data Sources As noted above the Pan American Health Data Analysis Variables: IV = age, race, geographic location, whether individuals diagnosed with diabetes were able to manage their diabetes effectively during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine level of glycemic control for individuals diagnosed with diabetes who self-managed during the lockdown for COVID19 in Grenada. Framework: The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational programs during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada? for 2020 data, it contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. This data was collected monthly, so a comparison is possible. Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, participation in educational programs; DV = glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) Scales of Measurement: IV = nominal, interval/ratio; DV = interval/ratio Analysis: repeatedmeasures analysis of variance (ANOVA) RQ2: What is the association between the glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and participation in educational programs during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by visits to primary care provider? Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Design: a cross-sectional I will need to access the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 data, it contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. This data was collected monthly, so a comparison is possible. As noted above the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. Variables: IV = age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, participation in educational programs; Moderating variable =visits to primary care provider, DV = glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to selfmanage) Scales of Measurement: IV = nominal, interval/ratio; DV = interval/ratio; Moderating Variable: interval/ratio Analysis: moderation analysis RQ3: What is the association between the glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage) in March 2020 compared to May 2020 and age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, and by visits to primary care provider I will need to access the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 data, it contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. As noted above the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) database for 2020 contains data on glycemic index and the independent variables of age, race, geographic location, income, Variables: IV = age, race, geographic location, income, educational level, visits to primary care provider, DV = glycemic index (the ability of individuals diagnosed with diabetes to self-manage); Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Design: cross-sectional during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada when moderated by participation in educational programs? Method: QuantitativeQuantitative Design: cross-sectional This data was collected monthly, so a comparison is possible. educational level, visits to primary care provider, and participation in educational programs. Moderating variable = participation in educational programs Scales of Measurement: IV = nominal, interval/ratio; DV = interval/ratio; Moderating Variable: interval/ratio Analysis: moderation analysis QL Sample Research Design Alignment Table Research Problem, Purpose, and Framework Research Question(s), Method, & Design Types of Data to be Collected and Data Collection Instruments Data Sources Data Analysis Problem: The specific research problem is that it is not known whether individuals diagnosed with diabetes were able to manage their diabetes effectively during the COVID-19 lockdown in Grenada. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the selfmanagement practices during the COVID-19 pandemic through the perspective of adult diabetics in Grenada. Framework: The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Ajzen’s theoretical work, which has been used extensively in public health research to predict selfmanagement behaviors of adults with diabetes (Wongrith, 2019). This research study will focus on the use of the concept of perceived control as it relates to the lockdown during COVID19 and the impact this had on adults diagnosed with diabetes and their ability to self-manage their disease. RQ1: What were the selfmanagement experiences of adults with diabetes in Grenada during the COVID-19 lockdown period? I will need to create an interview protocol that will be developed to address the problem and purpose of the study. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Method: QualitativeQualitative Design: case study The data will include responses from adults diagnosed with diabetes who live in Grenada to the interview questions regarding how they selfmanaged their diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Constructs included will be attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. RQ2: What were the attitudes, norms, and perceived behavior control of adults with diabetes in Grenada towards diabetes selfmanagement, during the COVID-19 lockdown period? I will need to create an interview protocol that will be developed to address the problem and purpose of the study. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Method: QualitativeQualitative Design: case study RQ3: The data will include responses from adults diagnosed with diabetes who live in Grenada to the interview questions regarding how they selfmanaged their diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Constructs included will be attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. I will need to recruit adults diagnosed with diabetes for individual interviews. An interview protocol will be developed to address the problem and purpose of the study. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. I will need to recruit adults diagnosed with diabetes for individual interviews. An interview protocol will be developed to address the problem and purpose of the study. The interview guide will be created using the Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. The data analysis will follow Saldañas (2016) descriptive coding process and use first and second cycle coding. Descriptive coding is used to assign labels to words or phrases in the data. First and second cycle coding means that the data are reviewed more than once using one or more types of coding. Codes will be categorized, which means synthesizing the codes into consolidated meaning. Categories will be moved into themes, which are phrases or sentences that describe a process derived from the categories. The data analysis will follow Saldañas (2016) descriptive coding process and use first and second cycle coding. Descriptive coding is used to assign labels to words or phrases in the data. First and second cycle coding means that the data are reviewed more than once using one or more types of coding. Codes will be categorized, which means synthesizing the codes into consolidated meaning. Categories will be moved into themes, which are phrases or sentences that describe a process derived from the categories. Method: Design:

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