Recent Scope Creep Insights Literature Review

1 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1Background Assessing a software engineering project extensively can help managers identify potential risks in the project. Kennedy, O. (2022) analyzed the risk monitoring process to prevent scope creep. Projects are prone to risks, and poorly implemented strategies for managing the risks contribute to the failure of a project. Scope creep is associated with a sneaky thing that occurs as a change once the terms of the project are outlined, and the work has begun. In most instances, scope creep involves a disconnect between the plans and the work people are expected to complete. During the management of a software engineering project, the two things that are scrutinized mainly include the project’s scope and the implementation cycles. Therefore in case of changes that may occur in the implementation phase, the project tends to slow down, the budget stretch out, and the goals change. Notably, the team gets stressed, and individuals quit; hence the success of the project is affected. Scope creep affects the overall morale of finishing the project since the team members get to witness the slow and painful death of a project. Therefore, scope creep leads to missed deadlines and wastage of resources, which contributes to a project’s failure. 1 2.1.1 Decision Making on Project Management Poor planning contributes to the increase of the scope of a project from the initial intended goal. Business, feature, hope, and effort creep are the major types of scope creep. In business creep, it occurs when managers lack to understand their business environment. In this type of creep, stakeholders tend to change their priorities, roles, and mind regarding the project scope. A scenario in business creep is when stakeholders sell an impossible project that the team can’t match to deliver the required work expected by a client (Peterson, 2020). On the other hand, effort creeps mainly entail a priority item decreasing its value, and regardless of the effort, the team makes no progress can change it. Therefore, the team experiences pressure and breakdown during the implementation of the project. Therefore, trust and communication are affected; hence the project’s productivity is affected. The main cause of the creep is when a team underestimates the effort required to complete a task; hence, the team lacks the knowledge and skills to finish the project. Hope creep involves when a team believes that they can meet a project’s deadlines and requirements; therefore, they poorly plan the project’s scope. Lastly, for feature creep, the project team members drive their efforts in the desire for perfectionism, and they end up changing and adding things without thinking clearly. Notably, the creep can occur when companies receive requests from multiple people to work on their project, and the manager accepts without having a clear process on how they will manage the project scope. Therefore, it is important for stakeholders in a project to drive their efforts in ensuring that before the beginning of a project, they understand the objectives and risks associated with the implementation of the project. 2 2.2 Review of Existing Research This section intended to review existing literature to find relevant research as possible. Also, to understand what is known already about the scope creep, gaps and to use existing studies as data to explore scope creep effects. 2.2.1 Identifying Scope Creep Moneke & Echeme (2016) explored the effects of scope creep on projects. The paper argues that scope creep is a lethal disease that can affect the success of a project, and it mostly leads to failure and abandonment. Projects tend to suffer from scope creep despite being fairly managed. The project scope has a high risk of growing bigger and beyond its initial boundaries. Scope creep, lack of comprehensive feasibility analysis, cutting corners syndrome, and resource input compromise. In order to mitigate scope creep, individuals must analyze the project’s budget, performance, and time to mitigate scope creep. To confirm the research, the paper employed explorative research designs and surveys to indicate the causes and effects of scope creep. Individuals who took part in the research were from SEGPZN and LSPSCP, and their opinions were analyzed with the help of a five-point Likert scale (Moneke & Echeme, 2016). The study utilized an exploratory method to identify the causes of scope creep, and questionnaires were administered to the individuals. The analysis was subjected to schematic modeling using the Relative Severity Index. From the data analyzed, it was evident that poor understanding and lack of knowledge of the research management played a key role in causing scope creep. The research results identify that scope creep leads to project delays, cost overruns, and requirement changes. Therefore, different ways, such as 3 using the WBS diagram and Fishbone, were employed to indicate any project changes. The two techniques play a great role in outlining the work to be performed and how the relevant employees will be assigned to undertake the task. 2.2.2 Scope Creep and How it Affects Project Failure Komal et al., (2020) outlined that the creeping of scope is one of the major causes of failure in projects. The scope creep has a great chance of compromising quality, increasing cost, delaying schedules, and reducing the satisfaction of customers. According to the report, more than 50% of projects tend to experience scope creep, and 33% of the projects were under the Project Management Institute. Notably, the research indicates that scope creep can cost up to four times the initial development cost. Therefore, to analyze the factors that affect scope creep, the paper employed a Systematic Literature Review and interviewed experts. The interview data were collected from 5 individuals who are industry experts and academic experts that are experienced in scope management. Data from the conceptual framework is collected through a survey method and then analyzed through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. Based on the evaluation, it was concluded that scope creep factors negatively affect a project’s success. Komal et al., (2020) concluded that a lack of resources could affect the outcome of a project and hence, contribute to scope creep. Internal and external changes in a project due to a lack of adequate resources can lead to the failure of a project. Notably, unclear goals and objectives are some of the important dimensions in the success of a project. Therefore, if the goal is unclear and unattainable, the project will be subjected to failure. Poor communication is another factor that can lead to the unauthorized functioning of a project, 4 leading to its failure. Therefore, project managers should scrutinize a project effectively to prevent scope creep. 2.2.3 Identifying Drivers of Scope Creep The paper outlines the occurrences of scope creep in projects. Project managers have opposing perceptions regarding scope creep. Lack of adequate knowledge regarding scope creep contributes to uncertainty and ambiguity during the project operation. Awareness about scope creep helps team members identify risks and changes on a project; hence proper communication within the project management takes place. The elusiveness of scope creep is related to human resources and behavioral economics. Individuals tend to underestimate the consequences of making changes on complex projects whereby the impact of removing and adding specifications on the paper has no impact in the meeting room. The consequences of not making the changes are evident in the execution phase; therefore, the preventative effort is not attainable at this stage. Høylandskjær (2018) employed a cross-sectional, multiple, and mono-method case study design to analyze scope creep in project management. The sampling criteria include snowballing, and five project managers from Norway were employed. Notably, the project managers undertook an indepth interview in which their responses were transcribed, translated, and categorized. Based on the data collected, the study indicated that project scope creep tends to occur due to varying degrees of knowledge of the phenomena among managers. Lack of awareness of scope creep leads to members in a project misusing the term; therefore, they cannot detect any changes to the project’s scope. 5 2.2.4 Analyzing Project Scope Creep (Mirza et al., 2013) indicated that a lack of understanding of a project contributes to scope creep. Most projects begin with huge investments, good ideas, and great efforts. A properly defined project scope leads to the delivery of a quality product. A project’s success depends on having a budget, well-managed time, and a great team. Identifying performance measures, clearly defining the objectives, and identifying factors are the main factors that affect the success of a project. The project scope should be understood by all stakeholders and participants who are supposed to make decisions regarding the project. Poor scope management is linked with project failure since the changes interrupt the rhythm and lower productivity and morale of the fieldwork. The Project Management Institute performed the analysis, and a Project Experience Risk Information Library (PERIL) database was employed to identify risk in a project. The two categories under PERIL were related to changes and defects in the project scope, and out of 127 risks, 64 were scope risks. The findings in the paper indicate that to prevent project scope creep, participants should ensure that they communicate and get a clear vision for the required product. Therefore, they should drive their efforts in spending their time at the beginning of the project and set an agreement on the critical activities that will be undertaken before product development takes place. The activities mainly include constraints, assumptions, goals, product scope, and external feasibility. The impact of project success should be analyzed to ensure a real performance is attained. 2.2.5 Risks Associated with Scope Creep (Ajmal & Khan 2019) evaluated the factors that lead to scope creep by analyzing different stakeholders’ views. An efficient project attains its objectives within the budget, 6 time, and per the standards of a satisfied client. Project scope management is the best solution for eliminating project uncertainty and ambiguity. Scope creep increases the chance of risks in a project and low-quality work. The paper outlines that scope creep is not an industry-specific problem but individuals worldwide are experiencing the issue. The study explores the main factors that cause project scope creep. To understand the factors, interview-based research was undertaken to collect data from different projects in Abu Dhabi and Dubai from the public and private sectors. From the data analyzed, it is evident that communication plays a great role in the success of a project. Stakeholders that have poor communication skills lead to scope creep in a project. Project managers are prone to add features and functionalities to the project scope without addressing the effects of project boundaries. Project scope creep associated with conflicting requirements that need proper communication and strategic decision-making skills. Therefore, managers should ensure that they communicate effectively across all team members to mitigate risks in a project. 2.3 Gaps in the literature In this section, you need to identify the gaps in the literature and show how your study fill this gap 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This dissertation focuses on the data-driven estimation of toxic gas emissions in fire training centers, which aims to achieve two goals: maintaining environmental sustainability and preserving personnel safety. This chapter is primarily designed to present the historical context, the outline for the research project, and the approach for estimating carbon emissions. 1.1 Background The Fire Training Centers significantly contribute to the training of firefighters on how to face different types of situations found in the field. These are secure areas that trainees use to work on their techniques during starting and extinguishing a fire, rescuing individuals in need, and managing casualties during emergencies. These fire training centers, where real fire scenarios are simulated, provide valuable and even crucial practical training necessary for effective firefighting. Traditionally, fire training centers have used hydrocarbon fuels, mainly diesel and gasoline, to power their training exercises. These igniters are prevalently at hand, affordably priced, and highly combustible, being often preferred by most training centres (Wang et al., 2019). Unlike most other industries that are relatively distinct and noncombustible, there are inhaled toxic gases and particulate matter when trainees and instructors burn organic compounds in the air. 1 Among the main pollutants emitted during combustion of conventional fuels are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM). The inhalation of these pollutants may result in severe health problems, including respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, and neurological disorders (Chandrasekar et al., 2022). Additionally, if these pollutants are allowed to exist in the air, it will lead to air pollution and further environmental degradation. The environmental risks due to committing firefighters to training centres with high levels of toxic gases are especially alarming because they are already exposed to dangerous surroundings during their careers. Longstanding exposure to poisonous gas during drills may have health effects and render firefighters unable to fulfil their tasks effectively in case of real problems. Besides health problems, toxic gas emissions also lead to environmental consequences. The burning of hydrocarbon fuels not only emits carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a greenhouse gas but also contributes to climate change and global warming (Hansen et al., 2021). Climate change anxiety is growing at an alarming rate, and so sectors that are not eco-friendly are feeling the pressure to decrease their carbon footprint and practice sustainability. Recognizing the challenge existing in this matter, the level of interest in investigating the use of nontraditional fuels in fire training centres is increasing. N-butanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are the alternative fuels that guarantee a significant reduction in toxic gas discharge in contrast to conventional fuels (Chen et al., 2019; Şöhret & Gürbüz, 2021). Unlike the traditional fuels that burn faster and emit more harmful pollutants, 2 these alternative fuels burn more cleanly and produce fewer dangerous other gases, thus making them suitable for fire training operations. Another dimension of the convergence of alternative fuel use is that this is in line with the broader sustainability initiatives, which include the Kingdom’s 2030 Global Vision and the National Transformation Program. In making the change from dirty fuels to environmentally safe alternatives, fire training centres assist in the national endeavour of decreasing pollution, conserving natural resources, and achieving the goals of sustainable development. The complicated nature of the above issues requires a detailed study of the environmental effects of fire training centre operations and the scope of the possible advantages of replacing these fuels with their alternative counterparts. As a first step, comprehensive awareness of the problem and professional choice of remedies will empower the stakeholders to improve safety, protect the public, and preserve the environment for future generations. 1.2 Proposal The objective of this project will be a thorough cost-benefit assessment as well as a calculation of the amount of carbon emissions released due to using conventional fuels in fire training centres. In addition to that, alternative eco-friendly energy sources will be recommended. Some of these consist of n-butanol and LPG that have negligible or no emission during combustion (Chen et al., 2019). The goal of this proposal is to provide a solution to the firefighting industry’s problems, which aligns with the proposal of the Kingdom’s 2030 Global Vision National Transformation Program, which is focused on environmental sustainability. Switching to other fuels not only makes the work 3 environment safer by reducing contact with toxic emissions but is also in line with the overall objective of shrinking the harm of adverse changes to the environment (Şöhret & Gürbüz, 2021). This project will identify issues, develop solutions, and provide concrete recommendations for the usage of alternative eco-friendly fuel in fire training centres. This implementation, in turn, aligns with the strategic priorities and establishes a culture of innovation and sustainability in the firefighting community. 1.3 Problem Statement Fire Training Centers are the core place where firefighters can develop new sets of skills with firefighting simulations. Nonetheless, the current practice of using hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel and gasoline in these facilities would lead to the emission of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and carbonaceous smoke, which pose serious health threats to the personnel operating them (Hansen et al., 2021). While the significance of cutting these outputs is known, established techniques for measuring and overcoming them are still narrow and decentralized. The lack of uniformity in the standards hinders the ability to accurately calculate emissions and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative fuels in reducing environmental influences. Subsequently, this calls for the implementation of a comprehensive technique involving key parameters like the size of the centre, type of fuel, burning time on a daily basis, and the number of fire simulators (Hansen et al., 2021). Remedying this issue is a must for improving protocols addressing safety and environmental issues in the firefighting sector. 1.4 Research Hypothesis It is hypothesized that the utilization of alternative eco-friendly fuels in fire training centres would lead to a considerable diminishing of gas toxic emissions compared to the 4 use of conventional hydrocarbon fuels, consequently assisting in the enhancement of environmental sustainability while raising safety standards. 1.5 Research Objectives The objectives of the research will be based on a wide approach that will pay attention to the complexity of the estimations and the mitigation of toxic gas emissions in fire training centres. First of all, this research will conduct a thorough value analysis that aims to compare the benefits and various cost aspects of eco-friendly options versus the utilization of traditional fuels in these areas. This will, therefore, yield valuable data on the economic viability and environmental impact of fuel alternatives. The research will also develop a model that is data-driven for estimating toxic gas emissions, considering key parameters such as size, type of fuel, burning time per day, and the start time during the fire simulator’s operation. The model would then assess the pollutants in the environment, including key factors such as fuel selection and operational practices. Additionally, the evaluation of alternative fuels in the context of lowering toxic gas emissions will be made possible by applying quantitative analysis and statistics. Through a comparison of emission levels among different fuel options, the study will clarify the environmental advantages of switching to eco-friendly solutions. Thus, the study will wrap up the objectives with a set of recommendations spearheaded by the findings on using green fuel options in training grounds for firefighters. Recommendations will, therefore, be based on empirical evidence and endeavour to address the specific needs and challenges that exist among all entities in the Fire Training Centers. Therefore, over time, the research objectives come together to achieve the single goal of increasing 5 compliance with environmental and safety standards in fire training centres using wise decision-making and constructive steps. 1.6 Significance of the Study This study’s significance is premised on the fact that it could be used as a basis for modern fire training and managing the environment of the firefighting industry. Through the study of toxic gas emissions in fire safety training centres, research is not only about the protection of firefighters but also about preserving the environment. First, the results acquired during this study can directly influence the health of firefighters and their training personnel. Through the identification of cleaner fuels and the creation of a model containing statistics for emissions, the research brings workable solutions that can limit the use of harmful pollutants during training. This simultaneously improves work safety and the worker’s long-term health, as they are not exposed to chemical hazards every time. Another point is that the study is in line with a broader program of environmental sustainability, especially within the context of the Kingdom’s 2030 Global Vision National Transformation Program. The recommendation improves environmental compliance by supporting the adoption of eco-friendly fuels and promoting responsible environmental practices in the training facilities (Hansen et al., 2021), which is effective in reducing carbon footprints and mitigating environmental degradation. Moreover, the findings of this study can be instructive for authorities in terms of fire safety and environmental control policy-making and regulation. By showing that alternative fuels can be feasible and functional, the study becomes valuable evidence for bringing in the outlooks for ensuing sustainable practices stated by the firefighting sector. 6 1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Research Study The study will concentrate on fire training facilities within the Kingdom’s region and will consider a restricted range of alternative fuels to be evaluated. Besides the disparity in data availability and the model precision of the emitted estimation, this limitation of the study might not be comprehensive as well. This piece offers the basic but important context for the chapters that are to follow, which will elaborate on the methodology, findings, and implications of the research results. 7 References Chandrasekar, K., Sudhakar, S., Rajappan, R., Senthil, S., & Balu, P. (2022). Present developments and the reach of alternative fuel: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 51, 74-83. Chen, Z., Wang, L., & Zeng, K. (2019). A comparative study on the combustion and emissions of dual-fuel engine fueled with natural gas/methanol, natural gas/ethanol, and natural gas/n-butanol. Energy conversion and management, 192, 11-19. Şöhret, Y., & Gürbüz, H. (2021). A comparison of gasoline, liquid petroleum gas, and hydrogen utilization in an spark ignition engine in terms of environmental and economic indicators. Journal of energy resources technology, 143(5), 052301. Steen-Hansen, A., Storesund, K., & Sesseng, C. (2021). Learning from fire investigations and research–A Norwegian perspective on moving from a reactive to a proactive fire safety management. Fire safety journal, 120, 103047. Wang, B., Lau, Y. S., Huang, Y., Organ, B., Lee, S. C., & Ho, K. F. (2019). Investigation of factors affecting the gaseous and particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 12, 1113-1126. 8

Recent Scope Creep Insights Literature Review

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